AAL (Average Annual Loss)/Perdida anual esperada/Среднегодовые потери/Valor esperado das perdas anuais/Perte annuelle moyenne #
The expected annual average economic or human losses from disasters. The AAL is estimated by correlating the probable losses of multiple events and their annual probability of occurrence.
Building category/Categoría de la edificación/Категория строительства/Categoria de construção/Catégorie du bâtiment #
Broad engineering category assigned to a building based on the main material of the structural system, such as load-bearing masonry, reinforced concrete, steel, or timber. Each construction type may include one or more building types.
Building life cycle/Ciclo de vida de la edificación/Жизненный цикл здания /Ciclo de vida da construção/Cycle de vie du bâtiment #
The series of changes a building undergoes over the course of its life. These may include design changes, construction, maintenance, and retrofitting, among others. Maintenance of the building is necessary to ensure its design lifespan is accomplished. Retrofitting can extend the lifespan, depending on the level of intervention.
Building rehabilitation/Rehabilitación/Восстановление здания/Reabilitação/Réhabilitation #
The strengthening of structural elements so a building’s performance objective is the same as the one for which it was designed. Rehabilitation remedies damage to structural elements that may occur as the result of a disaster or with time.
Building relocation/Relocalización/Передислокация или смена место расположения здания/Realocação/Relocalisation #
The action or process of rebuilding a structure in a different location after it has been severely damaged and/or because the risk level is high in the original location.
Building repair/Reparación/Капитальный ремонт/Reparação/Réparation #
Repair to a building’s structural and nonstructural components to restore or improve functionality. This type of intervention does not improve the building’s performance in the event of a disaster.
Building type/Tipo de Edificación/ tipo de edificación estructural/Тип здания /Tipologia construtiva/Typologie constructive #
Engineering category assigned to a building based on its structural system, height range, and seismic design level. The structural system ensures the building’s stability with respect to gravity, earthquake, wind, and other types of loads. It comprises such elements as columns (posts, pillars) and/or load-bearing walls; beams (girders, joists); floor and/or roof systems (slabs); and foundations (mat, spread footings, piles).
Collapse prevention/Prevención de colapso /Предотвращения обрушения /Prevenção do colapso/Prévention de l’effondrement #
Performance objective of a building expected post-disaster, in which the damage to the building is severe and there is high risk of fatalities. At this level of damage, repair of the building is not feasible.  Arup. 2017. Measuring Risk in Kyrgyz Republic, Seismic Hazard Assessment Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Construction type/Sistema construtivo #
Broad engineering categorization of buildings with similar construction materials such as load bearing masonry, reinforced concrete frame, steel frame and timber frame. Each construction type might include different building types.
Contingent retrofitting/Reforzamiento contingente/Условное усиление /Reforço sísmico de contingência/ Renforcement contingent #
A short-term and low-invasive retrofitting strategy that aims to make a building safer until it can be replaced.
Deterministic analysis/Análisis determinístico/Детерминистский анализ /Análise determinística/Analyse déterministe #
Risk assessment of infrastructure that analyzes its exposure and vulnerability to an individual event with a certain probability of occurrence.
The extent to which people, property, infrastructure systems, or other elements in an area are subject to impacts from natural hazard events.  UNISDR. 2009. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva.
Fragility function/Función de fragilidad/Кривая линия хрупкости/Curva de fragilidade/Courbe de fragilité #
A statistical function that associates the probability of exceeding a given damage level of an element or a system to a seismic demand, such as acceleration or displacement.
Hazard /Amenaza/Опасность/Ameaça/Danger #
The potential occurrence of a natural physical event that may cause loss of life, injury, or other health impacts, as well as damage or loss to property, infrastructure, livelihoods, provision of services, or environmental resources.  UNISDR. 2009. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva. .
Hazard map/Mapa de amenazas/Карта опасности/Mapa de ameaça/Carte des aléas #
A map that shows the spatial distribution of the expected level of intensity of a hazard for a specific return period.
Immediate occupancy/Ocupación inmediata/Непосредственное пребывание/Ocupação imediata/ Occupation immédiate #
Performance objective of a building expected post-disaster, in which there is minor damage, and the building is safe to be occupied immediately after the event. The building may not, however, be fully operational because of damage to nonstructural components, contents, and/or equipment and lack of services (such as water or power).  Arup. 2017. Measuring Risk in Kyrgyz Republic, Seismic Hazard Assessment Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Incremental retrofitting/Reforzamiento incremental/Инкрементальное усиление/Reforço incremental/Renforcement incrémental #
Retrofitting of a building in stages, with the aim of eventually bringing it into compliance with building regulations. Through incremental retrofitting, the minimum necessary performance improvements can be made to many buildings with the available resources. Planning is required for subsequent intervention phases.
Index building/Edificación representativa/Индекс здания/Edifício representativo/Bâtiment représentatif #
Buildings chosen to be representative of the expected performance of a group of buildings with similar structural and nonstructural characteristics and assessed to identify structural deficiencies and develop retrofitting solutions that can be applied to other buildings in the group. Construction material, lateral load-resisting system, height range, construction quality, and floor/roof flexibility are among the characteristics considered in choosing index buildings.
Interventions at scale #
refers to a strategy of articulated and prioritized interventions to meet progressive safety and functional targets for many existing school facilities.
Life safety/Seguridad de la vida/Обеспечение безопасности жизни людей/Salvaguarda da vida humana/Sécurité des personnnes #
Performance objective of a building expected post-disaster, in which there is extensive damage to structural and nonstructural elements, but the building’s stability is not compromised. Also, for occupants, the probability of expected fatalities is low. Repair of the building is possible but may be uneconomic. Typically, seismic design codes for new construction expect life safety as a minimum performance objective for a design level earthquake.  Arup. 2017. Measuring Risk in Kyrgyz Republic, Seismic Hazard Assessment Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Non-structural elements/Elementos no estructurales/Не конструктивные элементы/Elementos não estruturais/Éléments non structurels #
Elements of a building that are not part of its load resistance system, such as facades, dividing walls, ceilings, and service lines, among others. Nonstructural elements must be designed to withstand the seismic demand of the main structure.
Operational/Operacional/Операционный/Operacional/ Opérationnel #
Performance objective of a building expected post-disaster, in which there is very light damage to nonstructural components, and the building’s functionality is not disrupted. The building can very likely be economically repaired, if any repairs are required.  Arup. 2017. Measuring Risk in Kyrgyz Republic, Seismic Hazard Assessment Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Performance objective/Objetivo de desempeño/Объект «Перфоменс» проектирования/Nível de desempenho/Objectif de performance #
Defines how a building should perform during an event in terms of the expected damage level and loss of functionality. It is typically defined in codes and regulations according to engineering parameters. In general, there are four types of performance objectives: collapse prevention, life safety, immediate occupancy, and operational.
Reconstruction/replacement/Reconstrucción/reemplazo/Реконструкция /Reconstrução/Reconstruction/ remplacement #
The action or process of rebuilding a structure or part of a structure that has been destroyed or for which risk of collapse is high or repair is uneconomical.
Replacement threshold/Umbral de reemplazo/Порог замены/Rácio reconstrução versus reforço/Seuil de remplacement #
The maximum acceptable ratio of the intervention cost (including improvement of functional and structural components) to the replacement value of a building at which intervention is no longer economically feasible.  FEMA. 2018. Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings. Volume 1 – Methodology. 2nd ed. FEMA P-58-1. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
Replacement value/Valor de reemplazo/Стоимость замены/Valor de reconstrução/Valeur de remplacement #
The cost of demolishing a building and constructing a new one to replace it.
The ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to, and recover from their effects rapidly and efficiently. PreventionWeb. 2019. “Hazard.” March 19. https://www.preventionweb.net/risk/hazard.
Retrofitting/Reforzamiento/Усиление или модернизация/Reforço/Renforcement #
The addition of new structural components to or the strengthening of existing components of a functional building to improve its resistance and performance in the event of earthquakes and other hazards.
Risk /Riesgo/Риск/Risco/ Risque #
The probability of damage to or loss of elements exposed to hazard. Risk analysis is a process that seeks to comprehend the nature of risk and determine its extent. Risk is a function of exposure, vulnerability, and hazard.
Risk assessment/Evaluación de riesgo/Оценка степени риска/Análise de risco/Évaluation des risques #
Framework for estimating the impact of a hazard on exposed elements in terms of economic and/or human losses. It integrates the hazard model, which comprises all possible events with their probability of occurrence; the exposure model, which correlates spatially characteristics of the elements susceptible to damage; and the vulnerability model, which relates the expected damage to intensity levels.
Risk map/Mapa de riesgos/Карта рисков/Mapa de riscos/Carte des risques #
A map that shows the spatial distribution of the expected losses (human, economic, etc.) due to a hazard event. It combines spatial data on hazard, exposure, and vulnerability in a certain location, and can represent the losses for a single or multi-hazard event.
Risk mitigation/Mitigación de riesgo/Меры по снижению риска/Mitigação de risco / Mitigação do risco sísmico/Atténuation des risques #
The effort to intervene in infrastructure to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. The investment strategy for infrastructure should be risk informed, prioritizing the critical facilities, to support the long-term well-being of the community. Effective risk mitigation requires that action be taken now—before the next disaster—to reduce human and financial consequences later.  FEMA. 2018. “What is Mitigation?” Federal Emergency Management Agency,… Read More
School building/Edificio escolar/Здание школы/Edifício escolar/Bâtiment scolaire #
A building that is part of a school facility.
School community/Comunidad educative/Школьное сообщество/Comunidad escolar/Communauté scolaire #
The community of stakeholders in a school, including teachers, parents, administrators, community councilors, and students, among others.
School facility/Sede educativa/Школьное учреждение/Centro escolar/Établissement scolaire #
The group of functional spaces that comprise a school, including classroom buildings, gymnasiums, dining halls, libraries, and others.
School infrastructure baseline/Lineabase de infraestructura educativa/Школьная инфраструктурная база /Línea de base de la infraestructura educativa/Bilan de référence de l’infrastructure scolaire #
Inventory of the current condition of school infrastructure in a given study area prior to any intervention. It includes information on the location, occupancy, and structural and functional characterization of the buildings, among other attributes. The baseline provides an important reference for understanding the need for investment to meet costs.
School infrastructure network/Red de infraestructura educativa/Школьная инфраструктурная сеть/Rede de centros escolares/Réseau des infrastructures scolaires #
The geographical distribution of schools throughout a study area.
School infrastructure/Infraestructura educativa/Школьная инфраструктура/Infraestrutura escolar/ Infrastructure scolaire #
The buildings and/or spaces in which school activities take place. School infrastructure includes classrooms, playgrounds, and libraries, among others.
Seismic design level/Nivel de diseño sísmico/Уровень сейсмостойкого проектирования/Nível de dimensionamento sísmico/Niveau de conception sismique #
Degree of resistance to earthquakes of a building’s structural system. It considers the implementation of the best engineering design and construction practices.
Traditional retrofitting/Reforzamiento convencional/Комплексное усиление/Reforço sísmico/Renforcement conventionnel #
A long-term retrofitting strategy carried out in one stage, that aims to bring a building permanently into compliance with building regulations. This type of retrofitting is more expensive and more invasive than contingent retrofitting, so the functionality of the building is usually disrupted for a longer period of time.
Susceptibility of specific exposed components to impacts from a particular hazard. This susceptibility is represented by a vulnerability function, a statistical function representing the expected damage ratio of a building subjected to a given hazard intensity level. The damage ratio is estimated as the relationship between the total direct and indirect losses and the replacement value of the building.